Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) vcot de-de Fri, 31 Oct 14 13:43:50 +0100 Ahead of print: A comparison of conventional compression plates and locking compression plates using... Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the stiffness, yield load, ultimate load at failure, displacement at failure, and mode of failure in cantilever bending of locking compression plates (LCP) and dynamic compression plates (DCP) in an acute failure ilial fracture model. Our hypothesis was that the LCP would be superior to the DCP for all of these biomechanical properties. Methods: Ten pelves were harvested from healthy dogs euthanatized for reasons unrelated to this study and divided into two groups. A transverse osteotomy was performed and stabilized with either a 6-hole DCP applied in compression or a 6-hole LCP. Pelves were tested in cantilever bending at 20 mm/min to failure and construct stiffness, yield load, ultimate load at failure, displacement at failure, and mode of failure were compared. Results: The mean stiffness of DCP constructs (193 N/mm [95% CI 121 – 264]) and of LCP constructs (224 N/mm [95% CI 152 – 295]) was not significantly different. Mean yield load of DCP constructs (900 N [95% CI 649 –1151]) and of LCP constructs (984 N [95% CI 733 –1235]) was not significantly different. No significant differences were found between the DCP and LCP constructs with respect to mode of failure, displacement at failure, or ultimate load at failure. Clinical significance: Our study did not demonstrate any differences between DCP and LCP construct performance in acute failure testing in vitro.... C. W. Bruce (1), T. W. G. Gibson (2), R. J. Runciman (3) 23615 2014-10-27 08:48:08 Ahead of print: Kinematic gait analysis of the canine thoracic limb using a six degrees of freedom... Objectives: To determine if the use of a six degrees of freedom marker set would allow new kinematic data of the canine thoracic limbs to be calculated. To identify any significant differences in thoracic limb gait patterns in all planes of motion, between the normal canine population and patients with confirmed medial coronoid disease (MCD). Method: Two groups of dogs were selected representing the normal Labrador Retriever population (n = 13) and Labrador Retrievers with confirmed MCD (n = 13). Normal dogs had “normal” hip and elbow radiographic scores in line with the International Elbow Working Group and British Veterinary Association guidelines. Medial coronoid disease was confirmed using arthroscopy after kinematic analysis was performed with a six degrees of freedom marker set. Results: The diseased elbow was nine degrees more extended between 43%-55% of the gait cycle and 16° more supinated prior, early during and after foot strike. The antebrachium was nine degrees more supinated during foot strike and three degrees more abducted during early stance. None of the other parameters were significantly different. Clinical significance: The use of a six degrees of freedom marker set made it possible for the elbow and antebrachium to be reliably tracked in more than one plane of motion. Significant differences were identified between the normal canine population and those affected by MCD. These data may help elucidate biomechanical factors contributing to aetiopathogenesis of MCD.... A. Caron (1), N. Fitzpatrick (1), A. Caley (2), M. Farrell (1) 23614 2014-10-27 08:46:47 Ahead of print: Treatment of canine cranial cruciate ligament disease Objective: To describe veterinarians’ treatment recommendations and decision-making factors for dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD). Methods: An online survey of American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS)-Diplomates (surgeon group) and primary care veterinarians (practitioner group) was performed. The survey included questions on treatment recommendations for common case scenarios (small or large breed dog with complete or partial CCLD), treatment decision factors, non-surgical treatment options, and actual treatment, if any, provided for a client-owned dog as well as one owned by their family or close friend. Results: The response rate was 42% for the surgeon group (n = 305/723) and four percent for the practitioner group (n = 1145/27,771). For a 9.1 kg dog with CCLD the most commonly recommended treatment was extracapsular stabilization (ES) (65 [48%] of the surgeons and 80 [47%] of the practitioners were for complete or partial CCLD), whereas for a 27.2 kg dog it was tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) (71 [69%] of the surgeons and 47 [35%] of the practitioners were for complete or partial CCLD). The two most important treatment decision factors were dog size (78% of practitioners, 69% of surgeons) and activity level (63% of practitioners, 52% of surgeons). The most common treatment provided for a dog of their own or close relation in the surgeon group was TPLO (64%) followed by ES (15%), whereas in the practitioner group it was ES (38%) followed by TPLO (30%). Clinical significance: Extracapsular stabilization and TPLO are the most commonly employed surgical procedures in the surveyed population; dog size and activity level (but not age) are the major factors influencing treatment decisions.... F. M. Duerr (1), K. W. Martin (1), M. Rishniw (2), R. H. Palmer (1), L. E. Selmic (1) 23607 2014-10-20 10:52:37 Ahead of print: Medullary cavity diameter of metacarpal and metatarsal bones in cats Objectives: To compare radiography and computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of medullary cavity diameters of metacarpal and metatarsal bones in cats and to analyse their correlation with intramedullary pin size. Methods: Radiography and CT were performed in cadavers (n = 12). The mid-diaphysis was determined and the medullary cavity diameter was measured by two observers. Each bone was osteotomized at the mid-diaphysis, Kirschner wires were inserted, and pin size was documented. Intra- and interobserver variability was evaluated (hierarchical analysis of variance). Radiography and CT were compared (correlation analysis, a t-test for dependent samples, a Bland-Altman analysis) and pin size, radiography and CT were compared (regression and correlation analysis). Results: Intraobserver variability was low for radiographs and CT, with an estimated median variation of 0.10 mm for radiographs and 0.12 mm for CT. Interobserver variability was low, with a median variation of 0.03 mm for radiographs and 0.21 mm for CT. There was a high correlation between radiography and CT for the assessment of the medullary cavity diameter. A high correlation was found between pin size and measurement on radiographs, and between pin size and measurements on CT. In two cats, pin insertion was difficult or impossible. Clinical significance: Mid-diaphyseal meas-urements are applicable methods for the assessment of the medullary cavity diameter in feline metacarpal and metatarsal bones regarding intramedullary pins. In some cats the medullary cavity diameter may be too small for intramedullary pinning techniques, which can be identified preoperatively on radiographs.... M. Kornmayer (1), K. Amort (1), K. Failing (2), M. Kramer (1) 23606 2014-10-20 10:50:16 Ahead of print: Lameness associated with tarsal haemarthrosis as the sole clinical sign of... A four-year-old, male Cocker Spaniel was presented for investigation of pelvic limb stiffness. There was palpable effusion of both tarsi, and analysis of synovial fluid from these joints indicated previous haemorrhage. After further investigation a diagnosis of idiopathic immune-mediated thrombocytopenia was made. The dog responded to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of confirmed haemarthrosis as the sole presenting clinical sign for canine idiopathic immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. M. B. Walton (1), E. Mardell (2), M. Spoor (3), J. Innes (1) 23605 2014-10-20 10:28:01 Ahead of print: Kinetic and kinematic evaluation of compensatory movements of the head, pelvis and... Objectives: To determine ground reaction forces, head and pelvis vertical motion (HVM and PVM, respectively), and thoraco-lumbar lateral angular motion (LAM) of the spine using kinematic gait analysis in dogs with mild asymmetric weight-bearing of the pelvic limbs while trotting. Methods: Twenty-seven hound-type dogs were fitted with reflective markers placed on the sagittal crest of the skull, the ischiatic tuberosity, and thoracolumbar spine of dogs to track motion while trotting. Kinetic and kinematic data were used to characterize asymmetry between the left and right pelvic limbs, and to describe HVM, PVM and thoraco-lumbar LAM. Maximum and minimum position and total motion values were determined for each measured variable. Results: Dogs with asymmetric weight bearing of the pelvic limbs had greater PVM on the side with a greater peak vertical force (PVF), and greater thoraco-lumbar LAM toward the side with a lower PVF while trotting. No differences in mean HVM were detected, and there were no significant correlations between the magnitude of HVM, PVM and thoraco-lumbar LAM and the degree of asymmetric weight bearing. Clinical significance: Dogs with subtle asymmetric weight bearing of a pelvic limb had patterns of body motion that may be useful in identifying subtle lameness in dogs; greater PVM on the side with greater weight bearing and greater thoraco-lumbar LAM toward the side with less weight bearing while trotting. Description of these compensatory movements is valuable when evaluating dogs with subtle weight bearing asymmetry in the pelvic limbs and may improve the sensitivity of lameness detection during subjective clinical lameness examination.... D. A. Hicks (1), D. L. Millis (2) 23604 2014-10-20 10:27:09 Ahead of print: Effect of tibial subluxation on the measurements for tibial tuberosity advancement... Objectives: The main objectives were to evaluate the impact of femorotibial subluxation on the preoperative measurements for tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) by defining radiographic landmarks and testing the repeatability for assessing cranial tibial subluxation (CTS). Also, we aimed at developing a formula to calculate the necessary adjustment in measurement of TTA in stifles with CTS. Methods: Forty stifles were used to examine the influence of CTS on preoperative TTA measurements before and after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament. Mediolateral radiographs were obtained and measurements performed by three investigators. The observed variabilities were assessed by inter- and intra-observer differences. Results: Measurements of CTS and preoperative TTA showed a good to excellent inter- and intraobserver correlation. We found a significant influence of CTS on TTA measurements and developed a formula to calculate the necessary adjustment in measurement of TTA in stifles with CTS. Conclusion: We found a correlation between the tibial subluxation and the measurements for TTA, with the latter decreasing with increasing subluxation. This has to be taken into account when measuring the advancement in stifles with complete rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. We provided a formula to calculate the necessary addition to the measured advancement.... M. J. Bielecki (1), C. S. Schwandt (1), S. Scharvogel (1) 23603 2014-10-20 10:26:09 Ahead of print: Computed tomography assisted determination of optimal insertion points and bone... Objective: Describe optimal corridors for mediolateral or lateromedial implant placement in the feline tarsus and base of the metatarsus. Methods: Computed tomographic images of 20 cadaveric tarsi were used to define optimal talocalcaneal, centroquartal, distal tarsal, and metatarsal corridors characterized by medial and lateral insertion points (IP), mean height, width, length and optimal dorsomedial-plantarolateral implantation angle (OIA). Results: Talocalcaneal level: The IP were at the head of the talus and plantar to the peroneal tubercle of the calcaneus and OIA was 22.7° ± 0.3. Centroquartal level: The IP were at the centre of the medial surface of the central tarsal bone and dorsoproximal to the tuberosity of the fourth tarsal bone and OIA was 5.9° ± 0.06. Distal tarsal level: The IP were at the centre of the medial surface of the tarsal bone II and dorsodistal to the tuberosity of the fourth tarsal bone and OIA was 5.4° ± 0.14. Metatarsal level: The IP were at the dorsomedial surface of the proximal end of the metatarsal bone II and at the dorsolateral surface of metatarsal bone V and OIA was 0.5° ± 0.06. Significant positive correlation was found between body weight and the length of each corridor. Clinical significance: Most of the corridors obtained in this study had a diameter between 1.5 mm and 2 mm with a length of 15 mm to 18 mm, which stresses the importance of their accurate placement.... M. Benlloch-Gonzalez (1), M. Grapperon-Mathis (1), B. Bouvy (2) 23602 2014-10-20 10:25:10 Ahead of print: BMP-2 delivered from a self-crosslinkable CaP/hydrogel construct promotes bone... Objectives: To determine whether the addition of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) to a self-crosslinkable cellulosic hydrogel/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) granules construct promotes bone healing in critical-size ulnar defects in dogs. Methods: A standardized 2 cm long ulnar ostectomy was performed bilaterally in five dogs to compare bone healing with hydrogel/BCP constructs associated with or without rhBMP-2. Cancellous-bone autografts were used as positive controls in unilateral ulnar defects in five additional dogs. Radiographically, bone healing was evaluated at four, eight, 12, 16 and 20 weeks postoperatively. Histological qualitative analysis with microCT imaging and light and scanning electron microscopy were performed 20 weeks after implantation. Results: All rhBMP-2-loaded constructs induced the formation of well-differentiated mineralized lamellar bone surrounding the BCP granules and bridging bone/implant interfaces as early as eight weeks after surgery. Bone regeneration appeared to develop earlier with the rhBMP-2 constructs than with the cancellous-bone autografts while similar results were obtained at 20 weeks. Constructs without any rhBMP-2 showed osteoconductive properties limited to the bone junctions and a lack of osteoinduction without bone ingrowth within the implantation site. In one dog, the leakage of the hydrogel loaded with rhBMP-2 induced an extensive heterotopic bone formation. Clinical significance: The addition of rhBMP-2 to a self-crosslinkable hydrogel/BCP construct could promote bone regeneration in a critical-size-defect model with similar performance to autologous bone grafts.... K. Minier (1, 2), A. Touré (3), M. Fusellier (1, 3), B. Fellah (1), B. Bouvy (2), P. Weiss (3), O. Gauthier (1, 3) 23601 2014-10-20 10:23:57 Ahead of print: Biomechanical comparison of mono- and bicortical screws in an experimentally induced... Objectives: To compare the bending and torsional mechanical properties of mono- and bicortical locking screws in a canine cadaveric tibial gap ostectomy bridged by a locking compression plate (LCP). Methods: A 10-hole 3.5 mm LCP was applied medially to the tibia with a gap ostectomy using locking screws in the two proximal and distal plate holes. One tibia of each pair was randomly assigned monocortical screws and the other bicortical screws. Constructs were tested non-destructively in mediolateral and caudocranial four-point bending and torsion, and then to failure in four-point bending. Stiffness, yield and failure variables were compared between screw lengths and load conditions using analysis of variance. Results: Caudocranial and mediolateral four-point bending stiffnesses were not different between screw constructs. Torsional stiffness was greater and neutral zone smaller for bicortical constructs. Constructs were stiffer and stronger in caudocranial bending than in mediolateral bending. In caudocranial bending, bicortical constructs failed by bone fracture and monocortical constructs by screw loosening. Conclusion: Bicortical constructs were stiffer than monocortical constructs in torsion but not bending. Bicortical screw constructs failed by bone fracture under the applied loads whereas monocortical screw constructs failed at the bone-screw interface. Clinical relevance: Bicortical screw placement may be a safer clinical alternative than monocortical screw placement for minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis LCP-plated canine tibiae with comminuted diaphyseal fractures.... D. Demner (1), T. C. Garcia (2), M. G. Serdy (1), K. Hayashi (3), B.-A. Nir (1), S. M. Stover (4) 23600 2014-10-20 10:22:42 Ahead of print: Barbed versus smooth poly-propylene three-loop pulley sutures for repair of canine... Objective: To compare the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and load to 1 and 3 mm gap formation of smooth (3-metric) and knotless barbed (4-metric) polypropylene sutures placed in a three-loop pulley pattern for canine gastrocnemius tendon repair. Study design:In vitro. Sample size: Thirty-three paired bone-tendon units with one of each pair assigned to each suture type. Barbed suture size was based on previously published materials testing results. Methods: Each unit was placed in a servo-hydraulic testing machine and tested under single cycle tensile loading until repair failure. Results: There was a significantly higher UTS for smooth polypropylene compared to the barbed polypropylene repairs. The loads resulting in 1 and 3 mm gaps for the barbed repairs were consistently significantly less than the corresponding smooth polypropylene repair values. Conclusion: The knotted smooth polypropylene repair was consistently stronger than the knotless barbed polypropylene repair when placed in a three-loop pulley pattern for gastrocnemius repair. Clinical significance: Knotless barbed polypropylene suture should not be considered equivalent to knotted smooth polypropylene of comparable tensile strength when placed in a three-loop pulley pattern for canine gastrocnemius tendon repair. The low failure loads of the barbed repair are probably due to failure of the barbs to anchor consistently throughout the tendon in the knotless configuration.... B. S. Perry (1), T. A. Harper (1), M. A. Mitchell (1), M. S. McFadden (2), B. Heggem Perry (1) 23599 2014-10-20 10:21:46 Veterinary Orthopaedics and Traumatology on New Frontiers K. A. Johnson 23375 2014-09-12 10:27:20 Arthroscopy of the normal cadaveric ovine femorotibial joint: a systematic approach to the cranial... Objectives: Preclinical studies using large animal models play an intergral part in translational research. For this study, our objectives were: to develop and validate arthroscopic approaches to four compartments of the stifle joint as determined via the gross and arthroscopic anatomy of the cranial and caudal aspects of the joint. Methods: Cadaveric hindlimbs (n = 39) were harvested from mature ewes. The anatomy was examined by tissue dissection (n = 6), transverse sections (n = 4), and computed tomography (n = 4). The joint was arthroscopically explored in 25 hindlimbs. Results: A cranio-medial portal was created medial to the patellar ligament. The cranio-lateral portal was made medial to the extensor digitorum longus tendon. The medial femoral condyle was visible, as well as the cranial cruciate ligament, caudal cruciate ligament and both menisci with the intermeniscal ligament. Valgus stress improved visibility of the caudal horn of the medial meniscus and tibial plateau. To explore the caudal compartments, a portal was created 1 cm proximal to the most caudal aspect of the tibial condyle. Both femoral condyles, menisci, caudal cruciate ligament, the popliteal tendon and the menisco-femoral ligament were visible. The common peroneal nerve and popliteal artery and vein are vulnerable structures to injury during arthroscopy. Clinical significance: The arthroscopic approach developed in this research is ideal to evaluate the ovine stifle joint.... R. B. Modesto (1), K. A. Mansmann (2), T. P. Schaer (3) 22387 2014-08-27 14:03:36 Effect of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy on patellar tendon angle: A prospective clinical study Objective: To evaluate the effect of the tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) procedure on the patellar tendon angle (PTA) in dogs with naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Study design: Prospective observational clinical study. Animals: Dogs with naturally occurring CrCL rupture that had a TPLO performed (n = 40). Methods: Preoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA) and PTA were measured on radiographic images of affected stifle joints at 90° and standing angle (135°) respectively. The TPA and PTA were measured after TPLO was performed. Regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of preoperative TPA and PTA and postoperative TPA on postoperative PTA. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation between postoperative TPA and PTA. Results: The mean (± SD) preoperative TPA and PTA were 26.5 ± 3.8° and 105.7 ± 3.8° respectively. The postoperative TPA and PTA values were 7.6 ± 3.3° and 91.4 ± 5.5°, respectively. Regression analysis showed that higher preoperative PTA and postoperative TPA are associated with a larger difference between the postoperative PTA and 90°. There was a positive correlation between postoperative TPA and PTA. Conclusion: The TPLO procedure alters the PTA to 90° in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture similar to tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA). Clinical significance: The TPLO may provide dynamic stability to the cranial cruciate deficient stifle by altering the TPA relative to the patellar tendon and creating a PTA of 90°. The biomechanical principle and mechanism of action of TPLO may be similar to TTA.... S. Sathya (1), P. Gilbert (1, 2), A. Sharma (3), S. Hendrick (4) 22386 2014-08-27 13:56:43 Ahead of print: Unilateral or single-session bilateral surgery for correction of medial patellar... Objective: To compare complication rates as well as the short and long-term function of surgical limbs in small dogs with bilateral medial patellar luxation (MPL) undergoing unilateral or single-session bilateral surgery. Methods: Dogs weighing less than 12 kg with bilateral MPL that underwent unilateral (group U) or single-session bilateral surgery (group B) were retrospectively analysed. Data analysed included signalment, grades of luxation, surgical procedures, duration of surgery and anaesthesia, use of antibiotic medications, hospitalization time, complications, function at short-term follow-up, bone healing, and long-term assessment of function by means of a questionnaire. Results: Twenty-four dogs were included in group U and 27 in group B. Groups were similar in signalment and procedures performed. No significant difference was found in overall, minor, and major complication rates between Group U and Group B, nor in the short and long-term function of surgical limbs. Nine out of 21 dogs developed clinical signs on the contralateral stifle in Group U, of which only three underwent corrective surgery. Clinical significance: Single-session bilateral surgery could be offered for dogs with bilateral MPL with complication rates and function of operated limbs similar to unilateral surgery.... P. Clerfond (1), L. Huneault (1), J. Dupuis (1), M. Moreau (2), J. Auger (1) 22384 2014-08-27 12:57:20 Lumbosacral foraminal ratios and areas using MRI in medium-sized dogs Objective: To examine conventional magnetic resonance imaging planes of the lumbosacral foramina to obtain objective measurements of foraminal size in medium-sized (20–28 kg) normal dogs. Method: Ten canine cadavers were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging in neutral, flexed and extended position. Foraminal ratios, areas and lumbosacral angles were calculated and their relationship to body weight was evaluated. Results: Foraminal ratios were found to be independent of body weight in medium sized dogs (p >0.42). Foraminal areas were dependent on body weight (p D. Reynolds (1), R. L. Tucker (2), N. Fitzpatrick (3) 22383 2014-08-27 12:57:04 Is anaesthesia of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve specific for the diagnosis of... Objectives: To investigate the specificity of anaesthesia of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve (DB-LPN). Methods: Twenty horses had DB-LPN anaesthesia performed by a single injection technique as part of a lameness investigation. The mechanical nociceptive threshold (NT) was measured using a handheld force meter at six points on the lateral aspect of the limb: before diagnostic anaesthesia (T0), and at 15 (T15) and 30 (T30) minutes post anaesthesia. Paired t-tests were performed and significance was set at p G. Hinnigan (1), P. Milner (2), A. Talbot (3), E. Singer (2) 22382 2014-08-27 12:16:57 Morphologic and morphometric features of the calcaneal insertions of the superficial digital flexor... Introduction: Accurate description of the calcaneal insertions of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is lacking and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to undertake morphologic and morphometic evaluations of these structures to assist in elucidating their functional and pathogenic roles in displacement of the SDFT from the calcaneal tuber. Method: Dissections were performed on 10 normal cadaveric hindlimbs. The anatomy was photographed to allow measurements at repeatable locations and differences in SDFT dimensions at the various locations were compared using a paired student t-test. Results: This study demonstrated that the calcaneal insertions of the SDFT are independent from the overlying tarsal insertions of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus, which blend into the plantar surface of the fibrocartilaginous cap (FCC) of the SDFT before inserting dorsal to the insertion of the SDFT on the calcaneal tuber. The lateral insertion of the SDFT is larger in cross-sectional area (median: 219 mm²) at its origin from the FCC than its medial counterpart (median: 159 mm², p = 0.004) and has a more complex fibre alignment. The lateral site of attachment of the SDFT on the calcaneal tuber is dorsolateral to the insertion of the gastrocnemius tendon and is larger (median: 525 mm²) than the medial insertion (median: 428 mm², p = 0.036), which inserts distal to the insertion of the gastrocnemius tendon. Conclusion: The features identified in this study suggest that the calcaneal insertions of the SDFT are complex and their morphological and morphometric differences are likely to contribute to clinical lesions identified at this site.... W. H. J. Barker (1), I. M. Wright (1) 22242 2014-08-04 13:52:05 Locally injected autologous platelet-rich plasma enhanced tissue perfusion and improved survival of... Objectives: Distal flap necrosis remains a major complication in subdermal plexus (random) skin flaps. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve the survival of ischemic random skin flaps in rats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of locally injected autologous PRP on the survival of long (5:1 length-to-width ratio) subdermal plexus skin flaps in dogs. Methods: A 2x10 cm subdermal plexus skin flap was created bilaterally on the abdominal wall of six Beagle dogs. One randomly selected side received 2.5 ml of fresh auto-logous PRP injected evenly between sutures underneath the flap, whereas the other side was left untreated (control). Skin flap survival was evaluated macroscopically, histologically and by laser-Doppler flowmetry measurements of tissue perfusion. Results: Flap percentage survival on day 10 (96.3% versus 74.5%; p = 0.046) and tissue perfusion (p M. Karayannopoulou (1), L. G. Papazoglou (1), P. Loukopoulos (2), G. Kazakos (1), A. Chantes (3), N. Giannakas (1), I. Savvas (1), D. Psalla (2), M. Kritsepi-Konstantinou (4), D. Dionyssiou (3) 22241 2014-08-04 13:51:07 Bacteriostatic effect of equine pure platelet-rich plasma and other blood products against... Objectives: 1) To evaluate the bacteriostatic in vitro effect of pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP), pure platelet-rich gel (P-PRG), leukocyte-poor gel (LPG), platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and heat inactivated plasma (IP) against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) over a period of 24 hours. 2) To determine the degradation of platelet factor-4 (PF-4), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and platelet-derived growth factor isoform BB (PDGF-BB) in these equine blood components. 3) To establish correlations between platelet and leukocyte counts, PF-4 concentrations, and MSSA growth. Methods: Fourteen horses were used. Blood components were obtained by a manual protocol. Every blood component was mixed with MSSA and Müller-Hinton Broth and cultured at 37°C for 24 hours. Samples for the determination of bacterial growth (colony-forming units) and PF-4, TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB concentrations were taken at one, four, eight, 12 and 24 hours. Results: The bacterial growth was significantly (p = 0.01) inhibited for P-PRP, P-PRG, LPG and PPP in comparison with IP and, the positive control group during the first 12 hours. The P-PRG had higher and sustained TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB concentrations over time in comparison with the other blood components. Clinical significance: The plasma complement could be one of the most responsible components of the in vitro bacteriostatic effect of P-PRP, P-PRG, LPG and PPP against MSSA. Additionally, P-PRG was the better biomaterial because it had an acceptable bacteriostatic effect and the highest concentration of growth factors.... C. López (1), J. U. Carmona (1), C. E. Giraldo (1), M. E. Álvarez (1) 22240 2014-08-04 13:49:47 Surgical repair of a severely comminuted maxillary fracture in a dog with a titanium locking plate... A four-year old male Labrador Retriever was admitted with head trauma after being hit by a car. The dog had sustained multiple nasal, maxillary, and frontal bone fractures that resulted in separation of the maxilla from the base of the skull. A severely comminuted left zygomatic arch fracture was also present. These fractures were all repaired using a point contact, locking titanium plate system, in a single procedure that resulted in excellent postoperative occlusion and immediate function. Healing was uneventful. Full function and excellent cosmetic appearance were evident 13 months after surgery. This case illustrates the ease of repair and the success of treatment of severely comminuted maxillofacial fractures by conforming to basic biomechanical principles taken directly from the human experience and successfully applied to the dog; these included multiple plate application along the buttresses and trusses of the facial skeleton. The plate fixation was applied to bridge the multiple fractures along the most appropriate lines of stress. The small size of the plates, and the ability to easily contour them to adapt to the bone surface in three-dimensions, allowed their placement in the most appropriate positions to achieve sufficient rigidity and lead to uncomplicated healing without any postoperative complications.... E. Illukka (1), R. J. Boudrieau (1) 22239 2014-08-04 13:46:00 Bi-institutional retrospective cohort study evaluating the incidence of osteosarcoma following... Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for occurrence of osteosarcoma (OSA) following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). Methods: Medical records of client-owned dogs that underwent consecutive TPLO procedures at two institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Referring veterinarians and owners were contacted for follow-up. Each institutional cohort was assessed separately, and the incidence density rate and median time to occurrence of OSA at the TPLO site and at other sites were calculated. Marginal Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for potential risk factors for occurrence of OSA. Results: There were 472 CLINIC A (Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital) and 1992 CLINIC B (SAGE Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care) TPLO cases with over one year of follow-up available. There were five and six dogs within the cohorts that developed OSA at the site of TPLO, and seven and 22 dogs that developed OSA at other anatomical sites, respectively. The incidence density rates of OSA at the TPLO site were 30.4 and 10.2 per 10,000 dog-years at risk, and other sites were 42.6 and 37.5 per 10,000 dog-years at risk. The median time to occurrence of OSA of TPLO site OSA was 4.6 and 4.4 years, which was longer than that of other site OSA of 2.9 and 3.4 years. Clinical significance: There is a low incidence of OSA following TPLO surgery. The longer time to occurrence for TPLO site OSA is similar to that for fracture-associated sarcoma, and could indicate a similar underlying pathophysiology rather than spontaneous OSA occurrence.... A. J. Sartor (1), S. D. Ryan (2, 3), T. Sellmeyer (1), S. J. Withrow (3), L. E. Selmic (3) 21785 2014-07-31 11:08:48 Comparison of healing in forelimb and hindlimb surgically induced core lesions of the equine... Objective: Even though equine multi-limb tendinopathy models have been reported, it is unknown if fore- and hindlimb tendon healing behave similarly. The aim of this study was to compare the healing process of surgically induced superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) core lesions of fore- and hindlimbs in horses. Methods: Tendon core lesions were surgically induced in the SDFT of both fore- and hindlimbs in eight horses. One randomly assigned forelimb and one randomly assigned hindlimb were injected with saline one and two weeks post-surgery. The healing process was monitored clinically and ultrasonographically. After 24 weeks, the tendons were harvested and biochemical, biomechanical and histological parameters were evaluated. Results: Twenty-four weeks post-surgery, the forelimb SDFT lesions had a significantly higher colour Doppler ultrasound vascularization score (p = 0.02) and glycosaminoglycan concentration (p = 0.04) and a significantly lower hydroxylysylpyridinoline content (p = 0.03). Clinical relevance: Our results indicate that fore- and hindlimb SDFT surgically induced lesions exhibit significant differences in several important parameters of tendon healing 24 weeks post-surgery. These differences create significant challenges in using all four limbs and accurately interpreting the results that one might generate. Therefore these findings do not support the use of four-limb models for study of tendon injury until the reasons for these differences are much better understood.... R. J. Estrada (1, 2), P. R. van Weeren (3), C. H. A. van de Lest (3, 4), J. Boere (3), M. Reyes (5), J. C. Ionita (6), M. Estrada (2), C. J. Lischer (1) 21784 2014-07-31 11:07:57 Combined prevalence of inherited skeletal disorders in dog breeds in Belgium Canine hip dysplasia (CHD), canine elbow dysplasia (CED), and humeral head osteochondrosis (HHOC) are inherited traits with uneven incidence in dog breeds. Knowledge of the combined prevalence of these three disorders is necessary to estimate the effect of the currently applied breeding strategies, in order to improve the genetic health of the population. Official screening results of the Belgian National Committee for Inherited Skeletal Disorders (NCSID) revealed that an average of 31.8% (CHD, CED, or both; n = 1273 dogs) and 47.2% (CHD, CED, HHOC, or a combination of these three diseases; n = 250 dogs) of dogs are mildly to severely affected by at least one skeletal disorder. According to the current breeding recommendations in some dog breeds in Belgium, these animals should be restricted (mild signs) or excluded (moderate to severe signs) from breeding. The introduction of genetic parameters, such as estimated breeding values, might create a better approach to gradually reduce the incidence of these complex inherited joint disorders, without compromising genetic population health.... F. Coopman (1, 2, 3), B. Broeckx (4), E. Verelst (2), D. Deforce (4), J. Saunders (3), L. Duchateau (5), G. Verhoeven (3) 21783 2014-07-31 11:06:40 Surgical management and follow-up of triceps tendon avulsion after repeated local infiltration of... Disruption of the triceps tendon insertion is an uncommon injury, with only a few reports of traumatic triceps tendon avulsion in dogs or cats present in the veterinary literature. Although this injury has been previously described in two dogs that had received a local injection of corticosteroids for the treatment of soft tissue injuries, reports with long term clinical follow-up and outcome in working dogs are lacking. This report describes two surgically treated cases of complete triceps tendon avulsion rupture in Malinois police dogs. These two dogs had a history of repeated local infiltration of a corticosteroid preparation used to treat adventitial bursitis. The clinical features, surgical treatment, long-term management and outcome are reported. A modified triple locking loop pattern was used to suture the tendons. The long-term outcome was considered excellent with both dogs resuming work. Although it is an uncommon condition in small animals, avulsion of the triceps tendon should remain on the differential diagnosis list for acute onset forelimb lameness, particularly if there is a history of local infiltration with corticosteroids. The diagnosis should be based on clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic examination.... P. García-Fernández (1), P. Quero Martín (1), A. Mayenco (1), M. Gardoqui (1), I. Calvo (2) 21782 2014-07-31 11:04:21